Have you driven past Carolin’s Grove recently and noticed the work we have done to clear out some of treefall from Hurricane Sandy? Well, it’s time to stop in and take a few minutes to see the change. With funding from the family of the original donors of this Preserve and support from the Land Trust Alliance, we hired a tree crew, Emerald Organic, to remove dead and downed trees that prevented us from accessing the area for management of invasive species and native plant protection. This part of the forest is now safe for visitors to explore.
While there are large gaps among the towering spruce trees in the Grove, there are also many young saplings, some already above the height of deer browse. We aim to influence the regeneration of this forest to include a mix of deciduous trees and conifers, with berry and nut producing shrubs in the understory to support birds and other wildlife. This month and next, volunteers and students including the entire third grade at Pound Ridge Elementary School will help to plant in the largest forest gaps. More volunteers are always welcome, including those who can stop by and water during dry periods in summer.
We have White pine, Pitch pine, Eastern red cedar, American hazelnut and Northern bayberry saplings to plant, some of which were donated by the New York State School Seedling Program. We are also going to plant wildflowers that are important for pollinating insects, such as Grey goldenrod, Milkweed, and Wild bergamot, grown in our own native plant nursery at the Armstrong Preserve and Education Center. Please see this blog post for more information on the PRLC Prop Lab.
Five new student volunteers stayed warm by working hard at our first Saturday Volunteer Work Session of the year last week at the Clark Preserve. We worked together to clear Japanese barberry and other invasive plant species from an area near the entrance to the preserve, on Autumn Ridge Road in Pound Ridge. The students were able to draw connections between what they saw and learned about in the forest, and what they have in their yards at home. They asked important questions: “how did invasive species get here?” (They were brought in by nurseries for sale as landscaping plants, in many cases.) And, the kids want to know what is edible, trying out garlic mustard and onion grass and black birch. We talked about making syrup from Sugar maples, and how you can know you are looking at a maple even at this time of year (by the buds and pattern of branching). Curiosity flows freely in the outdoors.
We are grateful for the assistance of volunteers in maintaining the health of this seventy acre forest, and we look forward to spending more time out on the land this season. Join for our next Saturday Volunteer Work Session on April 1 at Richard’s Preserve on Honey Hollow Road, 10am to noon. We will be making improvements to the entrance to the preserve including installation of a water bar to direct road runoff out of the trail. Please bring a shovel if you have one, and wear long sleeves and pants for protection from thorns.
PRLC is pleased to announce two paid internships available in Summer 2017. We seek to provide a direct hands-on learning experience in nature preservation to two college students in the Environmental Studies or a similar field of study. Our interns participate in trail maintenance, habitat protection, and scientific research projects. They also act as tour guides to work sites, document and develop site plans, and present a summary of their work to the local community at season’s end.
This year, we offer internships in Preserve Stewardship and Environmental Restoration. The Preserve Stewardship Intern will range across our eight preserves with trails and will visit other sites protected for their conservation value. The Environmental Restoration Intern will help us to grow native plant stock in our home nursery at the Armstrong Preserve and Education Center and to plant and maintain restoration areas at select PRLC preserves, including Halle Ravine, Carolin’s Grove, and Clark Preserves. We also welcome high school students who have the opportunity to volunteer as interns during the last month of their senior year. Please see our Internships page for more information and instructions on how to apply.
The Pound Ridge Land Conservancy invites nature lovers of all ages to attend our Citizen Science and Volunteer Forum on February 26, 6pm, at the Armstrong Preserve and Education Center in Pound Ridge. Discover opportunities to help land managers and scientists using your phone, camera, laptop, or simple tools. Find an internship or volunteer position with the PRLC or one of our partners. Our guest speakers will inspire you to become involved and join with others to make a difference in the world.
This year, we feature Akiko Busch, author of The Incidental Steward: Reflections on Citizen Science. Ms. Busch is a Hudson Valley resident who conveys a deep sense of place in her writing. She will read an excerpt from her book and discuss the crucial role that volunteers play in maintaining our ecosystems.
We will also hear from local scientists and project directors, including Shaun McCoshum and Carolyn Sears. Dr. McCoshum currently works for the Westchester Land Trust as the Preserve Manager and Educator. He has earned a PhD in Zoology and is an active citizen scientist and formal researcher who uses data from Citizen Science programs. Dr. Sears is a former educator and co-founder of The Invasives Project – Pound Ridge. She will describe plans for a community volunteer effort to use goats to manage Japanese knotweed, an invasive plant species.
Participation is free although prior registration is suggested. Please contact Krista at email@example.com or 914-205-3533 to register and to receive a digital copy of the Environmentalist’s Guide to Local Volunteer Resources and Citizen Science Projects.
Do you put seed out for birds in winter? Millions of Americans enjoy this hobby, even those who might not otherwise be nature-lovers. We string up suet for woodpeckers and scatter sunflower seed, millet, or corn to attract our personal favorites, perhaps the cardinal, or goldfinches. Some birds are finicky about visiting feeders, and we delight in adding another species to our list – mine is currently at eleven for 2017, but should reach fifteen or so before winter is over. I like to watch the Red-bellied woodpeckers, which are much more numerous this year than last. They are expanding their range further north as our winters grow more mild.
When I visit my mother in Vermont in a few days, I look forward to seeing her regular birds, so different from mine: crossbills and snow buntings, and red-breasted nuthatch. I might see a Cooper’s hawk in either location as they too have expanded their range, to prey on the birds that we attract to our feeders!
Some of you may wonder, is it necessary to feed birds, and can it be harmful? There are no conclusive data showing its benefit or harm to bird populations, although centralized feeding areas can be reservoirs for the spread of disease. It is a good idea to scrub down your feeder periodically, and to offer fresh water if you are providing any. The availability of water is a limiting factor for bird distribution, especially during freezes in winter, when I find dense concentrations of birds near flowing streams. Will the birds starve if you stop feeding them or miss a few days? Unlikely. Their numbers are determined by many factors in addition to food, and birds are adapted to move and forage over a wide area.
It is more important to support birds with a healthy habitat of native trees and plants than it is to provide supplementary foods in any season. Trees moderate our climate, provide shade and shelter and seed, and most critically, harbor vast numbers of insects. Some birds are almost entirely insectivorous, like the Eastern bluebird, while others depend upon insects for short periods of growth and transition. According to entomologist Doug Tallamy, ninety-six percent of terrestrial birds rear their young on insects, especially caterpillars. Many non-native plants do not support the kind or number of caterpillars that birds need, and when those plants become numerous enough to compete with native plants for space and light, the number of birds on the landscape will be diminished. Even non-native plants that appear to feed birds, like Asiatic bittersweet, can be low-quality food sources that provide less nutrition than native plants. We have seen a tremendous increase in the number and diversity of birds at the Armstrong Preserve and Education Center after we replaced our invasive non-native plants with native species.
Here is a list of things you can do to attract songbirds to your property, including suggested native plants for food sources, taken in part from bird habitat specialist Dr. Stephen Kress:
- Maintain a border of native trees and shrubs around lawns, and minimize the area of lawn.
- Create a brush pile.
- Remove invasive plants.
- Rake leaves under shrubs to create feeding areas.
- Clean out bird nesting boxes in early spring.
- Create a water source for bathing and drinking.
- Clean feeders with a 10% non-chlorine bleach solution.
- Keep cats indoors.
Spring and Summer Seed Producers = Red maple, American elm
Early Summer Fruit Producers = Black raspberry, High and Lowbush blueberry, Pokeweed, Shadbush
Autumn Seed Producers = Sugar maple, Eastern hophornbeam, the ashes
Autumn Fruit Producers = viburnums, dogwoods, Common elderberry, Spicebush
Winter Fruit Producers = Bayberry, Eastern red-cedar, Highbush cranberry, American holly, Inkberry, chokeberry, Wild grape, Virginia creeper, Winterberry, Staghorn sumac
Herbaceous plants = asters, Black-eyed susan, thistles, phloxes, sunflowers, goldenrods
Nectar Plants for Hummingbirds = Jewelweed, Cardinal flower, Trumpet honeysuckle, Indian paintbrush, Tulip tree
Welcome and Happy New Year! We are looking forward to this year’s suite of guided hikes with PRLC’s Land Steward & Educator, Krista Munger. First we will go to the Clark Preserve for a winter wildlife identification walk on January 28 (See Link). Conditions may be right for snowshoeing, but don’t be concerned if you don’t have them – several of us will walk ahead and pack down the trail for you. On March 26, we will search for early signs of spring at Halle Ravine Preserve and hope to see frogs, toads, and salamanders emerging under the green ferns and mosses. Practice identification of trees by their bark, buds, and branching on both excursions. Our focus on May 21 is wildflower identification in the Armstrong Preserve’s outdoor classrooms, including the Working Backyard where we grow native trees, shrubs, and plants for use in restoration projects in our preserves. Bird migration will be in full swing and the vernal pool should be full of frogs, so bring binoculars and plan to spend the afternoon exploring whatever interests you most in nature. There may even be morel mushrooms!
To receive a reminder ahead of each of these events, please join our mailing list. We will send you an email about once per month. We also have a series of volunteer work dates scheduled for the Spring beginning on March 4 at Clark Preserve. Please see our events calendar for other dates, and email Krista at firstname.lastname@example.org for more information and to sign up for email reminders on volunteering opportunities. You can like us on Facebook too!
The stony ground and prominent rock formations of Pound Ridge in Westchester County, New York elicit curiosity in many people, some of whom attended our recent guided hike focused on geology. I will summarize our tour of the geologic history that can be seen at the Bye Preserve, owned by the Pound Ridge Land Conservancy (link to map and directions). Trails at the Preserve are open everyday from dawn until dusk.
Imagine that your arm represents geologic time, with your armpit being the Big Bang and the tip of your middle finger representing today. The dawn of life occurs just above your wrist. Between your wrist and the middle of your palm, all of the bedrock that shapes this land was formed by a process known as the tectonic cycle: erosion of mountains, deposition of materials in layers, subduction (movement of the earth’s crust), and volcanism. There was something on the earth’s crust prior to the formation of our bedrock, of course, but we cannot see evidence of that now. Geologists have discerned that an ancient Acadian Mountain Range once rose east of us, to the height of the Himalayas, and then eroded into particles that were later metamorphosed into our bedrock. Add folding from the movement of tectonic plates, deformation by glaciers, and erosion, and you have a punctuated record of history etched on the landscape.
In its western half, the Bye Preserve is underlain by Fordham gneiss, which formed in the Precambrian era, 1.1 billion years ago. This layer measures up to 500 feet thick and is extremely resistant to weathering. There are many kinds of gneiss, and it is variable in color from brown to buff and can be pink or green. Fordham gneiss contains quartz, biotite mica, silicates, garnet, and other minerals. Bedrock along the eastern side of Bye belongs to the Hartland Formation, which is half as old and is a mixture of gneisses, schists, and amphibolites. It formed when shales and sandstones from a deep ocean metamorphosed and retains its layers of alternating color. Many of these rocks were inverted when the Hartland Boundary Fault displaced older layers and brought in new rocks.
Subsequent to the last great tectonic shifts in the Paleozoic era, the bedrock at Bye has endured at least four episodes of folding and associated metamorphism, which is visible in many rocks where layers are curved rather than straight. The first stage of folding produced large ENE-WSW trending ridges and valleys, while the second stage trended NNE. Later stages produced tight folds that reoriented earlier folds. Where rock is resistant to bending, brittle faulting may occur, which produced the Mill River Gorge just northeast of Bye Preserve and the Mianus River Gorge as well. In the midst of these changes, magma intruded the bedrock at Bye and produced a very pretty white-to-pink granite that is rich in quartz and mica.
More recently in geologic time, between your furthest knuckle and fingertip on our imaginary time scale, the glaciers of the Ice Age left their mark. An ice sheet more than one mile thick ground back and forth across this landscape for nearly 100,000 years in freeze/thaw cycles. Each advance brought in new rock from afar. Each period of retreat caused mass deposition, flooding, and a rise in sea levels. Bye Preserve is now only ten miles from the Long Island Sound and was at times submerged by ocean, although fresh water has played a greater role in carving this landscape. We can see evidence that great torrents once ran in the boulder fields that line two now-intermittent streams, scouring away soil such that even today, only ferns and moss grow there.
The last glacial ice disappeared from Pound Ridge about 12,0000 years ago, leaving behind piles of sand, rock, and even huge boulders on the surface of our scoured bedrock. These are the clues from which we can piece together millions of years of history on the land. To end our story, I invite you to sit with a favorite rock and to ponder what it has endured to bring you both to this moment in time.
Sixteen people attended our end-of-year Saturday morning work session at Halle Ravine and helped to remove old bridges from deep in the Preserve. Students and seniors, mothers, and dads all carried out boards and even one entire bridge, as shown in this video. Together we are stronger! We leave the forest, stream, and trails in better shape after much work in Halle Ravine in 2016. Projects are ongoing to control invasive species around the pond, with planting planned for this Spring. We also plan to replace the decking on one or more bridges next year. Be in touch to lend a hand!
Forests in Pound Ridge and surrounding areas are under siege by one of the gentlest of animals, the white-tailed deer. Deer are keystone herbivores and eat from five to seven pounds of vegetation per day. In summer, deer dine richly on the buffet of tender plants provided by home landscaping. In winter, our subsidized deer herds turn to the forest to browse buds, tender saplings, and even tree bark. At ideal densities of 10-15 per square mile, deer browse checks the growth of plant life without hindering forest regeneration. At higher densities, they can strip the understory bare. With deer density in Pound Ridge as high as 65 per square mile, we face the loss of wildflower species first, and then the pollinators that depended upon them, and then the birds that can’t find shelter or food, and finally, the forests themselves as trees are not replaced.
Is the situation really so dire? Scientists and natural historians have documented all of these effects, including our friends at Mianus River Gorge who found that tree sapling diversity in a local protected forest decreased from 15 species to 4 over the last thirty years, due to overbrowse by deer. Local land managers seek solutions, but first we must know our problem. I will describe here a simple method for assessing the level of deer browse in virtually any patch of forest in Pound Ridge. Rather than counting deer or deer density, we are going to measure the effect of deer browse on each plot and use that as a baseline that guides future management. This methodology was developed by Thomas Rawinski of the United States Forest Service, who shared his knowledge and skill with us in a training session this summer.
We begin by choosing a site for our study plot(s). The circular plot covers 100 square meters and must include at least ten measurable saplings of one of the indicator species. Measurable means that the sapling is still below the average browse line and therefore vulnerable. Indicator species include any browsed species with beech and sassafras preferred followed by the shrubs; maple-leaf viburnum, sweet pepperbush, alternate-leaf dogwood, red elderberry, choke-cherry, and even the invasive burning bush. I do not mean to imply that deer prefer these plants – rather, they avoid them – so that browse levels reliably indicate the severity of deer pressure on forest growth.
Once the indicator plant has been selected and the plot margins delineated, we set out to find the ten tallest measurable saplings of our chosen species. Then we average those ten measurements to find the definitive “tallest” for that plot. In itself, this doesn’t tell us much. Over time though, we can discern trends and hope to associate those with management actions. We can also make comparisons among plots to measure relative levels of browse across landscapes. For example, Sugar maples at Armstrong were browsed down to 8.9 inches, while those at Halle measured 8.1 inches. Deer pressure may be more severe at Halle than it is at Armstrong.
We can avoid the costly and time-consuming task of measuring deer density by using this simple approach to assess deer impact on our preserves. We will measure again next year and compare our findings both within PRLC holdings and with a larger community of land managers and report back to you then.
For more information, please see http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/2014/NA-IN-02-14_WhitetailedDeerNEForestsWEB.pdf
Twenty-three people attended our guided geology tour of Bye Preserve on Nov. 12 and saw firsthand how history has shaped this land for the last 1.1 billion years. Stay tuned for a summary and photos of what you can find on your next visit.